Frantz Fanon on Ivory Coast in ‘The Wretched of the Earth’ (1961)…

“The working class of the towns, the masses of unemployed, the small artisans and the craftsmen for their part line up behind this nationalist attitude; but in all justice let it be said, they only follow in the steps of their bourgeoisie. If the national bourgeoisie goes into competition with the Europeans, the artisans and craftsmen start a fight against non-national Africans. In the Ivory Coast, the anti-Dahoman and the anti-Voltaic troubles are in fact racial riots. The Dahoman and Voltaic peoples, who control the greater part of the petty trade, are, once independence is declared, the object of hostile manifestations on the part of the people of Ivory Coast. From nationalism we have passed to ultra-nationalism, to¬†chauvinism, and finally racism. These foreigners are called on to leave; their shops are burned, their street stalls are wrecked, and in fact the government of Ivory Coast commands them to go, thus giving their national satisfaction.” (p125, Penguin Classics)

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